Gastritis for medical students: GERD, gastritis, esophagitis, duodenitis, gastroduodenitis, Pepric ulcer disease and more


APD (acid peptic disease/disorders) consists  of different spectrum of disease which includes g e r d gastritis, esophagitis, Gastroduodenitis, peptic ulcer disease (gastric and duodental ulcers).

Symptoms of Gastritis and Peptic ulcer disease:

The common symptoms of it innclude heartburn, acid reflux, belching and abdominal pain. These symptoms are usually aggravated by empty stomach and occasionally the symptoms are also precipitated by eating food depending upon where  the pathology is. 


Acid and pepsin levels that are too high can lead to acid peptic diseases. The gastric and duodenal ulcer are the two main varieties of acid peptic diseases. The acid corrodes and injures the unprotected gastric mucsa and pepsin also plays vital role in it.

But they can also happen at Meckel's diverticulum, the lower end of the oesophagus, and the GJ Stoma. Acute or chronic symptoms can be present for a long time or be more complicated.

Role of Helicobacter pylori:

A bacterium names Helicobacter pylori is also associated with pathology of this disease. This bacteria can bear strong acidic  environment hence it lives in human stomach and helps frmation of the ulcers in the esophagus, stomach and the duodenum.

Complications of gastritis and pepic ulcer disease PUD:

The complications of untreated APD include but no limited to ulceration and bleeding, pain, weight loss, malnutrition, perforation, peritonitis, hospital stay and need for  surgery. in some cases the patient may also develop carcinoma (cancer) as well.

The gastric ulcer commonly changes into carcinoma while the duodenal ucer mostly perforates. 

APD/ GERD treatment

The treatment of  this disaese includes acid supressants i e PPIs, H2 antihistamines, Prostaglandin analogues, antacid tablets, and sometimes the patient may need antibiotcs as well for eradication of H pylori.

Occasionally ulcer protective  agents are also used for helping the ulcers heal, like sucralfate and the bismuth.

The complications like perforations are managed surgically while if any ulcer present should be checked for malignancy.

Here is the powerpoint presentation ppt for my studdents to go htorugh and revise while preparing for the competitive exams. 

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