Top 20 Signs and symptoms of Pregnancy in early and mid phase Explained

Top 20 Signs and symptoms of Pregnancy in early and mid phase Explained

Top 20 Signs and symptoms of Pregnancy in early and mid phase Explained
Pregnant or Not pregnant

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Pregnancy has been nature's way of maintaining homeostasis. It's considered physiological process to maintain life and continue life on earth. 

All the mammals get pregnant in order to give birth to their offspring.

As being mammal same applies for the human beings as well.

It can be very difficult to diagnose pregnancy in the early phase and sometimes pregnancy can be confused with other medical illnesses as well and the patient may seek treatment for their symptoms in multiple clinical setting. 

Hence it is necessary for us to ask the last menstrual period to the patient and suspect the possible menstrual cession due to pregnancy.

It's also necessary for us to diagnosed pregnancy on the basis of symptoms and science to avoid the territogenic drugs in case of early pregnancy particularly because territory drugs have effect on early pregnancy more than on later pregnancy.

List of teratogenic drug the we commonly prescribe is listed separately on this article.

Now let's move to common signs and symptoms of pregnancy that we need to ask and note down and also check during clinical examination to diagnose pregnancy and send the relevant clinical investigations.

Common Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms — The most common signs and symptoms of early pregnancy are:

  1. Amenorrhea
  2. Nausea with or without vomiting
  3. Breast enlargement and tenderness
  4. Increased urinary frequency without dysuria
  5. Fatigue

Additional signs and symptoms

Additional signs and symptoms may include:

  1. Mild uterine cramping/discomfort without bleeding
  2. Abdominal bloating
  3. Constipation
  4. Heartburn
  5. Nasal congestion
  6. Shortness of breath
  7. Food cravings and aversions
  8. Mood changes
  9. Lightheadedness
  10. Spider angiomas
  11. Palmar erythema
  12. Increased skin pigmentation (face, linea alba, areola)
  13. Difficulty sleeping
  14. Low back pain
  15. Adnexal discomfort

In a study that prospectively collected data on the onset of pregnancy symptoms in 221 females attempting to conceive, 60 percent experienced some signs or symptoms of pregnancy as early as 5 to 6 weeks of gestation (ie, five to six weeks after the first day of their last menstrual period [LMP]), and 90 percent were symptomatic by 8 weeks.

Their symptoms tended to develop abruptly and occur daily. However, the symptoms were nonspecific: they also occurred in 9 percent of nonpregnant cycles.

Findings on physical examination

  1. The pregnant uterus is more globular than in the nonpregnant state and enlarged, increasing in size by approximately 1 cm per week after 4 weeks of gestation. The correlation between uterine size and gestational age is often described in terms of fruit (eg, 6 to 8 week size = small pear; 8 to 10 week size = orange; 10 to 12 week size = grapefruit). The size of uterus can be guest by vaginal examination with bi-manual palpation method.
  2. The uterus remains a pelvic organ until approximately 12 weeks of gestation when it becomes sufficiently large to palpate abdominally just above the symphysis pubis, unless the patient has obesity. At 16 weeks, the uterine fundus is palpable midway between the symphysis pubis and umbilicus.

  3. The uterus and vaginal portion of the cervix soften beginning at approximately 6 weeks of gestation. Softening of the isthmus (lower portion of uterus adjacent to the cervix) allows the body of the uterus to flex against the cervix.

  4. The mucous membranes of the vulva, vagina, and cervix become congested and may appear bluish (Chadwick sign) beginning at approximately 8 to 12 weeks of gestation.

  5. The breasts become fuller and may become tender. The areola darkens, and the veins under the breast skin become more visible.

  6. Fetal cardiac activity can usually be detected by a handheld Doppler device at 10 to 12 weeks of gestation and sometimes earlier if the patient is thin and the clinician is persistent (fetal heart size is <7 mm at 10 to 12 weeks.
Data in this article is taken from up to date.

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