Respiratory system for medical students and paramedics by Dr chaitanya and Analog Health exams preparation

 You can view the PPT down below:

Respiratory system and related disorders COPD for medical and paramedical students health loksewa preparation and MCQs

Introduction to respiratory system

  • Respiration: process of gaseous exchange between an organism and its environment.

  • Internal respiration: Gaseous exchange between tissues and blood.

  • External respiration: Gaseous exchange between the body and the environment taking place in the lungs.

The external respiration constitutes processes of inspiration and expiration.

Structure of respiratory system
Structure of respratory system

  • External (Pulmonary) respiration: absorption of O2 and removal of CO2 from the body.

  • Internal (tissue) respiration: utilization of O2 and production of CO2 by cells and the gaseous exchanges between the cells and their fluid medium.

  • What is the normal respiratory rate in humans: 16-20 times per minute in adults. 

  • Children breathes more superficially and therefore have a higher respiratory rate.

Which of the following is the smallest functional unit of the lung?

A. Bronchiole
B. Alveolus
C. Bronchus
D. Pleura

Structure of Respiration System

:arynx anatomy
:arynx anatomy


AKA voice box 
Short section of the airway that connects the laryngopharynx and trachea.
Located in the anterior portion of the neck, just inferior to the hyoid bone and superior to trachea.
:arynx internal anatomy
:arynx internal anatomy


 a flap of elastic cartilage that acts as a switch between the trachea and the esophagus.
Inferior to the epiglottis, is the thyroid cartilage, often known as Adam’s apple, visible in adult males.


AKA windpipe
5 inch long tube made up of C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings.
Connects the larynx to the bronchi and allows the air to pass through the neck and into the thorax.
Function: to provide a clear airway for air to enter and exit the lungs.


A pair of large, spongy organs found in the thorax lateral to the heart and superior to the diaphragm.
Each lung is surrounded by a pleural membrane that provides the lung with space to expand.
The left lungs are slightly different that right in size and shape due to the heart pointing in the left side of the body.
2 lobes in the left and 3 lobes in the right.

Processs of air exchange gas echange in alveoli
Processs of air exchange gas echange in alveoli

Which of the following structures is NOT part of the upper respiratory tract?

A. Nasopharynx
B. Larynx
C. Trachea
D. Pharynx

What is the function of the epiglottis?

A. To regulate the flow of air into the lungs
B. To produce mucus to moisten the airway
C. To protect the airway during swallowing
D. To exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide

What is the role of surfactant in the lungs? 

A. To transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
 B. To protect the lungs from infection
 C. To decrease surface tension in the alveoli
 D. To regulate air pressure during inhalation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

A board classification of disorder including emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthma. 

Irreversible condition associated with dyspnea on exertion and reduced airflow in or out of the lung.

4th non communicable disease in the world according to recent study. 

Risk factors of COPD
Risk factors of COPD


Abnormal permanent enlargement of the air space distal to the terminal bronchioles is accompanied by destruction of bronchioles.

Chronic Bronchitis:

Presence of productive cough for 3 or more months in each of 2 successive years in a patient whom other causes of chronic cough have been excluded.


Intermittent, reversible, obstructive airway disease in which trachea and bronchi respond in a hyperactive way to certain stimuli.

Which of the following respiratory disorders is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways? 

A. Asthma
 B. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
 C. Pneumonia
 D. Lung cance

Clinical manifestationsof COPD symptoms and signs of COPD

  • Age groups >40 years 
  • Productive cough 
  • Decreased exercise tolerance
  • Wheezing 
  • Shortness of breathe 
  • Prolonged expiration 
  • Use of accessory breathing muscles 
  • Pursed lip breathing 
  • Central Cyanosis 
  • Barrel chest 
  • Weight loss  
  • Polycythemia (Hb>18 gm/dl)
  • Flapping tremor 
  • On percussion: hyper resonance 
  • On auscultation: vesicular breathe sound with prolonged expiration
  • Rhonchi 
  • Crepitation if associated with chest infection 
  • FEV1 <80%

Which of the following is a common symptom of respiratory distress?

A. Cyanosis
B. Hypotension
C. Hyperthermia
D. Bradycardia

How is Diagnosis of COPD made COPD diagnosis method

Following tests and investigations are done to diagnose a person as having COPD:
  1. History taking and physical examination 
  2. Pulmonary function tests 
  3. Arterial blood gas levels 
  4. Spirometry 
  5. Chest X-ray 
  6. ECG, Echo 
  7. Alpha 1 antitrypsin screening for the patients with strong family history of COPD.

What is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis?

A. Smoking
B. Air pollution
C. Genetic predisposition
D. Infection

What is the treatment of COPD? chronic bronchitis, emphysema

  1. Risk factor reduction 
    • Pollution, smoking, dust, smoke, firewood
  2. Promoting smoking cessation 
  3. Decreasing exposure to polluted environment 
  4. Oxygen therapy 
  5. Increase protein and calorie intake 
  6. Chest physiotherapy, postural drainage and breathing exercise 
  7. Nebulization 
  8. Medicines 
  9. Anti-microbial agent 
  10. Bronchodilators 
  11. Beta antagonists 
  12. Anticholinergics 
  13. Corticosteroids

What are the nusing care required for COPD and chest disease patients?

  • Improving gaseous exchange 
  • Maintaining fluid balance 
  • Managing nutritional needs 
  • Removing bronchial secretions
  • Breathing exercises and respiratory training
  • Providing mouth care , maintaining skin and joint integrity 
  • Achieving thermoregulation 

You can see the powerpoint presentation below:

Bonus MCQ below PPT:

All my links in one place here

Lungs structure and lobes
Lungs structure and lobes

Which of the following respiratory muscles is responsible for normal breathing during rest?

A. Diaphragm
B. Intercostal muscles
C. Sternocleidomastoid muscle
D. Scalene muscles

What is the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

A. Smoking
B. Air pollution
C. Genetic predisposition
D. Infection
Answer: A (Smoking)

Which of the following is a common symptom of pneumonia?

A. Wheezing
B. Chest pain
C. Coughing up blood
D. Rapid breathing (tachypnea)
Answer: D (Rapid breathing)

What is the hallmark symptom of asthma?

A. Coughing up phlegm
B. Wheezing
C. Chest pain
D. Shortness of breath at rest
Answer: B (Wheezing

Thank you so much for your time

Content by: Dr Chaitanya Joshi

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