Treatment of Diabetes (Sugar)

 How to do best Treatment of Diabetes (Sugar)

How to do best Treatment of Diabetes (Sugar)

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic medical condition characterized by high levels of blood sugar (glucose). This occurs either because the body doesn't produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar) or because the cells don't respond properly to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is necessary for the body to effectively use glucose as a source of energy.

There are three main types of diabetes:

Type 1 Diabetes: T

his is an autoimmune condition where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections or use an insulin pump to manage their blood sugar levels.

Type 2 Diabetes: 

This is the most common form of diabetes and is often associated with lifestyle factors like obesity, sedentary behavior, and poor diet. In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin, and the pancreas might not produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels in check. It can often be managed through lifestyle changes, oral medications, and sometimes insulin injections.

Gestational Diabetes: 

This type of diabetes occurs during pregnancy and usually resolves after the baby is born. However, women who have had gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

Treatment of Diabetes Options

  1. Exercise
  2. Diet
  3. Medicines
    1. Insulin
    2. Oral medicines

Exercise in diabetes

  • Improves insulin sensitivity & the lipid profile and lowers blood pressure, cardiovascular risk reduction & wt. loss
  • Walking, gardening, swimming or cycling, for approximately 30 minutes daily
  • Exercise-related hypoglycemia though uncommon can occur in individuals taking either insulin or insulin secretagogues

Diabetic Diet (click here)

Click the heading👆 for more.

Diabetes Education

  • Understand their disorder
  • Insulin administration
  • how to measure doses of insulin accurately with an insulin syringe or pen device
  • how to inject, and how to adjust the dose on the basis of blood glucose values 
  • knowledge of diabetes, be familiar with the symptoms of hypoglycaemia 
  • precaution for those who are taking insulin or oral anti-diabetic medications to carry a card stating their name and address, the fact that they have diabetes
  • Guidelines for diabetes management during illnesses
  • Prevention and management of hypoglycemia 
  • Foot and skin care
  • Diabetes management before, during, and after exercise
  • Risk factor–modifying activities

Oral Hypoglycemic agents for treatment of Diabetes mellitus
Oral hypoglycemic agents OHA used in diabetes mellitus
Oral hypoglycemic agents OHA used in diabetes mellitus

Insulin in diabetes:

Mechanism of action of insulin in diabetes mellitus:

↑ Glucose utilization, ↓ Hepatic glucose production, and other anabolic actions 

Indications of insulin : 

  • Pregnancy or planning pregnancy
  • OHA  not tolerated/ contra-indicated (underlying renal or hepatic disease)
  • Weight loss without dieting ( in low or normal weight) 
  • Personal preference
  • Foot ulceration and infection


            Side effects of Insulin therapy

            • Hypoglycaemia (main and dangerous)
            • Weight gain 
            • Peripheral oedema (insulin treatment causes salt and water retention in the short term) 
            • Insulin antibodies (animal insulins) 
            • Local allergy (rare) 
            • Lipodystrophy at injection sites 

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